Tag Archives: gtkmm

C++: std::string_view not so useful when calling C functions

string_view does not own string data

C++17 adds std::string_view, which is a thin view of a character array, holding just a pointer and a length. This makes it easy to provide just one method that can efficiently take either a const char*, or a std::string, without unnecessary copying of the underlying array. For instance:

void use_string(std::string_view str);

You can then call that function like so:

use_string("abc");

or

std::string str("abc");
use_string(str);

This involves no deep copying of the character array until the function’s implementation needs to do that. Most obviously, it involves no copying when you are just passing a string literal to the function. For instance it doesn’t create a temporary std::string just to call the function, as would be necessary if the function took std::string.

string_view knows nothing of null-termination

However, though the string literal (“abc”) is null-terminated, and the std::string is almost-certainly  null-terminated (but implementation defined), our use_string() function cannot know for sure that the underlying array is null terminated. It could have been called liked so:

const char* str = "abc"; // null-terminated
use_string(std::string_view(str, 2));  // not 3.

or even like so:

const char str[] = {'a', 'b', 'c'}; //not null-terminated
use_string(std::string_view(str, 3));

or as a part of a much larger string that we are parsing.

Unlike std::string, there is no std::string_view::c_str() which will give you a null-terminated character array. There is std::string_view::data() but, like std::string::data(), that doesn’t guarantee the the character array will be null-terminated. (update: since C++11, std::string::data() is guaranteed to be null-terminated, but std::string_view::data() in C++17 is not.)

So if you call a typical C function, such as gtk_label_set_text(), you have to construct a temporary std::string, like so:

void use_string(std::string_view str) {
  gtk_label_set_text(label, std::string(str).c_str());
}

But that creates a copy of the array inside the std::string, even if that wasn’t really necessary. std::string_view has no way to know if the original array is null-terminated, so it can’t copy only when necessary.

This is understandable, and certainly useful for pure C++ code bases, or when using C APIs that deal with lengths instead of just null termination. I do like that it’s in the standard library now. But it’s a little disappointing in my real world of integrating with typical C APIs, for instance when implementing gtkmm.

Implementation affecting the interface

Of course, any C function that is expected to take a large string would have a version that takes a length. For instance, gtk_text_buffer_set_text(), so we can (and gtkmm will) use std::string_view as the parameter for any C++ function that uses that C function. But it’s a shame that we can’t have a uniform API that uses the same type for all string parameters. I don’t like when the implementation details dictate the types used in our API.

There is probably no significant performance issue for small strings, even when using the temporary std::string() technique, but it wouldn’t be nice to make the typical cases worse, even just theoretically.

In gtkmm, we could create our own string_view type, which is aware of null termination, but we are trying to be as standard as possible so our API is as obvious as possible.

gtkmm 4 started

We (the gtkmm developers) have started work on an ABI-breaking gtkmm-4.0, as well as an ABI-breaking glibmm, target GTK+ 4, and letting us clean up some cruft that has gathered over the years. These install in parallel with the existing gtkmm-3.0 and glibmm-2.4 APIs/ABIs.

A couple of days ago I released first versions of glibmm (2.51.1) and gtkmm (3.89.1), as well as accompanying pangomm and atkmm releases.

This also lets us use my rewrite of libsigc++ for libsigc++-3.0, bringing us more fully into the world of “modern C++”. We might use this opportunity to make other fundamental changes, so now is the time to make suggestions.

We did a parallel-installing ABI-breaking glibmm even though glib isn’t doing that. That’s because, now that GTK+ is forcing us to do it for gtkmm, this seems like as good a time as any to do it for glibmm too. It’s generally harder to maintain C++ ABIs than C ABIs, largely because C++ is just more complicated and its types are more exactly specified. For instance we’d never have been able to switch to libsigc++-3.0 without breaking ABI.

 

libsigc++ 2.99.5: Even less code

I managed to rip out another chunk of slightly-incomprehensible code from libsigc++, and those improvements are in libsigc++-3.0’s 2.99.5 version.

Now there’s no common functor_base base class and I removed all those interdependent result_type typedefs that were scattered throughout the code. When I had unravelled the whole result_type chain, I could replace it with just a handful of decltype(auto) uses, realising that that’s what the whole mess was trying to achieve. I love decltype(auto).

libsigc++: std::function-style syntax.

Yesterday I released version 2.99.2 of libsigc++-3.0. This changes the declaration syntax for sigc::slot and sigc::signal to use the same style as std::function, which was added in C++11. We don’t want to be arbitrarily and unnecessarily different.

We’ve also simplified sigc::mem_fun() to always take a reference, instead of either a reference or a pointer.

So, where you might do this for libsigc++-2.0:

sigc::slot<void, int, A> slot = sigc::mem_fun(this, &Thing::on_something);
signal<void, int, A> m_signal;

You would now do this for libsigc++-3.0.

sigc::slot<void(int, A)> slot = sigc::mem_fun(*this, &Thing::on_something);
signal<void(int, A)> m_signal;

Actually, as of version 2.9.1 of libsigc++-2.0, you can use both syntaxes with libsigc++-2.0, allowing you some time to adapt to the new API before one day moving to libsigc++-3.0.

libsigc++ 3.0: Very variadic

I have just released libsigc++ 2.99.1, the first release of the libsigc++-3.0 API, which installs in parallel with the existing libsigc++-2.0 API. This is libsigc++ using much more modern C++, specifically C++14. The API itself is almost completely unchanged, but the implementation is now clearer and easier to contribute to. I’m rather proud of my work, but I’m quite sure that there’s still room for improvement.

Unfortunately, glibmm and gtkmm can’t use libsigc++-3.0 until they have their own parallel-installable versions. That’s not likely to happen until the mythical GTK+ 4 happens. Even though libsigc++ is mostly all templates in headers, its symbols do appear in the linker symbols for gtkmm method signatures, so changes to libsigc++ can break gtkmm ABI. I do have a sigc3 branch of glibmm in git just to show that it works.

With around 150 commits, I gradually refactored libsigc++ to use variadic templates with C++14 instead of generating code from nasty m4 files. Over the years, we have built up quite a large set of regression tests, run during “make check” and “make distcheck”, including various corner cases. Without these tests, the refactoring would have been much harder. With the tests, I could make small commits, knowing that each commit had not broken anything. When something did seem wrong, I could add a test and go back through the git history to find the problem, sometimes splitting commits into even smaller changes. I did a lot of that, rebasing several times, sometimes stopping and starting again after help from Jonathan Wakeley and Marcin Kolny. Those tests give me much more confidence in the end result than I could have if I had chosen to just reimplement the entire API from scratch.

The API is almost all .h files and according to wc, there are 24,145 lines of code in those files in libsigc++ 2.7.1 (after make), and  6,507 in libsigc++ 2.99.1. So there is now only 27% as much code.

This is possible because:

  • C++ variadic templates allow us to have one class or function where we previously had to generate multiple versions for 1 to 6 function parameters, sometimes with additional versions for const and non-const parameters or const and non-const (and volatile and non-volatile) member function pointers.
  • decltype(auto) lets us avoid lots of templated type traits just to correctly specify the correct type for methods.
  • The standard C++ type traits, such as std::conditional<>, std::result_of<>, std::is_base_of<>, std::remove_volatile<> and std::is_const<> let us write very generic code, sometimes replacing our own type traits. I added some more to libsigc++ to get compile-time type traits for member method pointers.
  • template aliases (like typedefs for templates) avoided the need for multiple functor classes deriving from a common base, even though I ended up not needing most of these aliases either.
  • I replaced our sigc::ref() and sigc::reference_wrapper() with std::ref() and std::reference_wrapper<>. Presumably these share a common history.
  • I removed some configure checks and ifdef-ed workarounds for older MSVC++ and Sun Forte compilers. Hopefully they aren’t necessary now, but we will see.

For some adaptors  I used the tuple utilities that I’ve been working on recently, for instance in sigc::bind(). These are copied into the libsigc++ source code, and I’d particularly welcome improvements to them in the form of patches or github pull requests.

I’m still not completely happy with all the overloads we have for sigc::mem_fun(), to take member functions that are non-const, const, non-volatile and/or volatile, but I have some things still to try. We might also remove several by not allowing both mem_fun(pointer, func) and mem_fun(reference, func).

Please do suggest ways to simplify the code yet further.

C++ Core Guidelines: Ownership and Parameters

I’ve been catching up on the wonderful CppCon talks from 2014 and 2015. It looks like we are getting towards a consensus about how to write modern C++, though I guess we are still early in the process,  and still coming up with as many questions as answers.

When this all settles down, it might need Scott Meyers to come out of retirement from C++ to combine and update his Effective C++ books. Maybe he’d do it if a really modern C++ emerged from it all.

Talks, Guidelines, Smartpointers and Ownership

Some of the most important talks focus on when pointers, or smartpointers, have “ownership”. Three talks in particular progress towards a rather utopian vision in which (shared) object ownership is clearer in various parts of your code and in which there are no object lifetime bugs:

  • CppCon 2014: Herb Sutter “Back to the Basics! Essentials of Modern C++ Style”  (slides)
    Herb discussed some best practices, particularly around auto and smartpointers.
  • CppCon 2015: Bjarne Stroustrup: “Writing Good C++14” (slides)
    Bjarne discussed how we can agree on guidelines that static analysis tools can use, and how following the rules can let static analysis tools find more bugs. For example, by using types to indicate whether a (smart)pointer is owning. As in Herb’s 2014 talk, he suggested that we should get() the raw pointer out of a shared_ptr<> before passing it to a function that doesn’t really want to share ownership. He also introduced the GSL, which has owned<> for when you can’t use shared_ptr<> or unique_ptr<>.
  • CppCon 2015: Herb Sutter: “Better C++14 by Default” (slides)
    The next day, Herb discussed many more ways that static analysis tools could avoid several classes of bugs, and how we can break the rules down into sets called profiles. He suggested some annotations, via the C++ generalized attributes syntax, already in C++11, which could let the tools find even more problems, but showed that we can make good assumptions by default. He showed a Microsoft static analysis tool doing this already.

I like the idea of tools telling me what to do. C++ is more complicated than ever, though also better than ever, and there’s more scope than ever for people to disagree about how to use it. At some point I like to move on and get stuff done. I’m sceptical that we can ever really make our code as safe as Bjarne and Herb suggest, but I’m convinced that we could catch several new categories of problems before runtime, and I want to try.

C++ Core Guidelines, Smartpointers, and Ownership

The C++ Core Guidelines are currently a bit of a muddle. There are many rules that seem to overlap too much, often with insubstantial examples. Too often there are admonitions about what not to do rather than examples of how to do things properly. Trying to comply with one rule will sometimes violate another rule, with no clues about resolving the conflict. The github issues and commits show that conflicts are being clarified, but the whole thing seems so big and spread so thinly that I guess it will be a long time until it feels consistent and cohesive.

The advice often seems to assume that you are writing application code rather than reusable library code, though large real world systems are rarely just one or the other. Therefore there is little consideration of ABI stability. For instance, it suggests “F.7: For general use, take T* or T& arguments rather than smart pointers” and “I.11: Never transfer ownership by a raw pointer (T*)” (and more overlapping advice) but what happens when you need to change the implementation and need to share ownership of the passed instance? You can’t just change a T* to a std::shared_ptr<T> without making existing applications crash. The document suggests GSL’s owned<> in this case, though I guess it will still affect shared library symbol names for methods, and it won’t actually do any reference counting. So in a library where you know that instances get passed around a lot, and there’s a reasonable chance that ownership will be shared, it doesn’t seem unreasonable to default to std::shared_ptr<> even if that obscures the actual ownership in some parts of the code.

Furthermore, when looking at other peoples’ code, how do we distinguish the foo(const T*) method that probably doesn’t keep a copy of the pointer, from all the foo(const T*) methods that might do anything at all because their authors never heard of the guidelines?

Raw pointers as non-owners

As a start, I’m playing with this idea of not overusing smartpointers and letting the lack of a smartpointer indicate non-involvement in the ownership. For instance:

std::shared_ptr<Something> something = get_something();

// This takes a shared_ptr:
do_something_and_keep_it(something); 

// This doesn't care about ownership:
do_something_and_dont_keep_it(something.get());

I’m ready to try this out in an application such as Glom, but fearful of doing it in a library API, such as gtkmm.

Bear in mind that, In the past,

  • I have been one of the maintainers that made glibmm and gtkmm use Glib::RefPtr<>, an intrusive reference-counting smartpointer, for all our wrapper classes of reference-counted glib/GTK+ objects (not widgets). For instance, see the doxygen graph of glibmm/giomm classes deriving from Glib::ObjectBase, and there are many in gtkmm too (not the widgets).
  • I converted most of my Glom codebase to use all of its data structure classes by shared_ptr (a custom shared_ptr<> before C++11) rather than trying to decide when they can be deleted.

These have worked out very well, partly because “only use this via this smartpointer” is a nice simple rule to follow. I’ve resisted letting anyone easily get the underlying pointer out of a RefPtr, to preserve this simplicity. Now that there’s this new (at least to me) consensus, I guess we’ll actually add RefPtr::get() and RefPtr::operator*() soon.

But I still hesitate, because I don’t expect the typical developer to be careful enough until there are tools to stop misuse and I don’t expect the typical developer to use the tools even when they exist. So the price of a better experience for experts may be more ways for non-experts to make mistakes. The gtkmm API has tried to be a pure and modern C++ while also being pragmatic and obvious, but it will be hard to keep the balance in this case.

Trying out raw pointers as non-owners in Glom

I tried this out in an “ownership” branch of Glom. I first looked at some static (standalone) functions that took a std::shared_ptr<> because those were unlikely to store any state between calls. Here is the fairly small patch that changed those parameters.

I then looked at some other functions that took a shared pointer to const (std::shared_ptr<const Something>), suggesting that the implementation just wanted to look at it and then forget it. Changing one function’s parameter forces you to look at the calling functions, where you might find that the shared_ptr<> is itself a parameter that should be changed to a non-owning raw pointer. I followed this logic up the call stack for a while and ended up with a larger patch. I forget which function I tried to change first.

I like that this reduces the amount of code where I need to worry about circular references, which I would break with a std::weak_ptr<>. But I still worry enough to wish there was some way to automatically identify where these might happen.

I’m still a little uncomfortable with this mix of shared_ptr<> and raw pointers, even in purely application code, so I’m not ready to put this in git master just yet. But I think I’ll come around to the idea.

std::unique_ptr parameters to take ownership

The C++ Core Guidelines, suggest “R.32: Take a unique_ptr<widget> parameter to express that a function assumes ownership of a widget” though they currently tell you to avoid std::move() (update: fixed now) which you’d need when calling such a method with a named variable. They don’t mean  gtkmm Widget, but I do.

Watch Herb Sutter’s 2014 talk for the rationale for taking std::unique_ptr<>, but not all types, by value. It’s also mentioned in the C++ Core Guidelines “F.15: Prefer simple and conventional ways of passing information” section.

For instance:

void
SomeClass::take_something(std::unique_ptr<Something> something) {
...
}

...
auto something =
  std::make_unique<Something>("something", 2, 'a');
something->set_extra_foos(foo1, foo2);
bar.take_something(std::move(something));

// Or without the intermediate variable:
bar.take_something(
  std::make_unique<Something>("something", 2, 'a'));

// Or again without the intermediate variable:
bar.take_something(
  create_something("something", 2, 'a'));

Trying out std::unique_ptr<> parameters to take ownership in gtkmm

gtkmm has Gtk::manage(), which roughly means “let the container widget worry about deleting this child widget later”. For instance, you can new a Gtk::Button and call Gtk::manage() on that button before you add() it to a Gtk::Grid. It works well and it’s very simple. Incidentally, all it really does is enable the default behaviour for GtkWidgets – the only clever stuff about Gtk::manage() is how we change the default for gtkmm.

Passing a std::unique_ptr<> to add() could have much the same meaning, and would have the advantage of using standard C++ API and a known convention. I have a patch in bugzilla that does this and there’s been some discussion on gtkmm-list.

However, the result is sometimes hard to love. You have to move the add() to later in your code, to avoid a use after std::move(). And, for some of our API, you really do need to use the pointer right after you’ve add()ed it to a container. So you need to take a temporary “observing” (non-owning) raw pointer before the add().

Currently, the worst part of the gtkmm API for this, which has never felt
quite right, though we can blame GTK+, is this:

auto cell = std::make_unique<Gtk::CellRendererText>();
cell->property_style() = Pango::STYLE_ITALIC

auto cell_nonowning = cell.get(); // yuck
auto column = std::make_unique<Gtk::TreeViewColumn>("something", std::move(cell));
column->add_attribute(cell_nonowning->property_text(), columns.title);
column->add_attribute(cell_nonowning->property_style_set(), columns.italic);

treeview.append_column(std::move(column));

I guess we’ll add the add(std::unique_ptr<>) overloads to allow this, but not deprecate Gtk::manage() until we feel more comfortable with how they make us rearrange our code.

Playing with xdg-app for PrefixSuffix and Glom

xdg-app lets us package applications and their dependencies together for Linux, so a user can just download the application and run it without either the developer or the user worrying about whether the correct versions of the dependencies are on the system. The various “runtimes”, such as the GNOME runtime, get you most of the way there, so you might not need to package many extra dependencies.

I put a lot of work into developing Glom, but I could never get it in front of enough non-technical users. Although it was eventually packaged for the main Linux distros, such as Ubuntu and Fedora, those packages were almost always broken or horribly outdated. I’d eagerly fix bugs reported by users, only to wait 2 years for the fix to get into a Linux distro package.

At this point, I probably couldn’t find the time to work more on Glom even if these problems went away. However, I really want something like xdg-app to succeed so the least I could do is try it out. It was pleasantly straightforward and worked very well for me. Alexander Larsson was patient and clear whenever I needed help.

xdg-app- builder

I first tried creating an xdg-app package for PrefixSuffix, because it’s a very simple app, but one that still needs dependencies that are not in the regular xdg-app GNOME runtime, such as gtkmm, glibmm and libsigc++.

I used xdg-app-builder, which reads a JSON manifest file, which lists your application and its dependencies, telling xdg-app-builder where to get the source tarballs and how to build them. Wisely, it assumes that each dependency can be built with the standard configure/make steps, but it also has support for CMake and lets you add in dummy configure and Makefile files. xdg-app-builder’s documentation is here, though I really wish the built HTML was online so I could link to it instead.

Here is the the manifest.json file for PrefixSuffix. I can run xdg-app-builder with that manifest, like so:

xdg-app-builder --require-changes ../prefixsuffix-xdgapp manifest.json

xdg-app-builder then builds each dependency in the order of its appearance in the manifest file, installing the files in a prefix in that prefixsuffix-xdgapp folder.

You also need to specify contexts in the “finish-args” though they aren’t explicitly called contexts in the manifest file. For instance, you can give your app access to the network subsystem or the host filesystem subsystem.

Creating the manifest.json file feels a lot like creating a build.gradle file for Android apps, where we would also list the base SDK version needed, along with each version of each dependency, and what permissions the app needs (though permissions are partly requested at runtime now in Android).

Here is the far larger xdg-app-builder manifest file for Glom, which I worked on after I had PrefixSuffix working. I had to provide many more build options for the dependencies and cleanup many more installed files that I didn’t need for Glom. For instance, it builds both PostgreSQL and MySQL, as well as avahi, evince, libgda, gtksourceview, goocanvas, and various *mm C++ wrappers. I could have just installed everything but that would have made the package much larger and it doesn’t generally seem safe to install lots of unnecessary binaries and files that I wouldn’t be using. I do wish that JSON allowed comments so I could explain why I’ve used various options.

You can test the app out like so:

$ xdg-app build ../prefixsuffix-xdgapp prefixsuffix
... Use the app ...
$ exit

Or you can start a shell in the xdg-app environment and then run the app, maybe via a debugger:

$ xdg-app build ../prefixsuffix-xdgapp bash
$ prefixsuffix
... Use the app ...
$ exit

Creating or updating an xdg-app repository

xdg-app can install files from online repositories. You can put your built app into a repository like so:

$ xdg-app build-export --gpg-sign="murrayc@murrayc.com" /repos/prefixsuffix ../prefixsuffix-xdgapp
$ xdg-app repo-update /repos/prefixsuffix

You can then copy that directory to a website, so it is available via http(s). You’ll want to make your GPG public key available too, so that xdg-app can check that the packages were really signed by you.

Installing with xdg-app

I uploaded the resulting xdg-app repository for PrefixSuffix to the website, so you should be able to install it like so:

$ wget https://murraycu.github.io/prefixsuffix/keys/prefixsuffix.gpg
$ xdg-app add-remote --user --gpg-import=prefixsuffix.gpg prefixsuffix https://murraycu.github.io/prefixsuffix/repo/
$ xdg-app install-app --user prefixsuffix io.github.murraycu.PrefixSuffix

I imagine that there will be a user interface for this in the future.

Then you can then run it like so, though it will also be available via your desktop menus like a regular application.

$ xdg-app run io.github.murraycu.PrefixSuffix

Here are similar instructions for installing my xdg-app Glom package.

I won’t promise to keep these packages updated, but I probably will if there is demand, and I’ll try to keep up to date on developments with xdg-app.

glibmm: Deprecated Glib::Threads

As of glibmm 2.47 (currently unstable), we have deprecated the glibmm threads API, which wrapped the glib threads API. That’s because C++11 finally has its own standard threading API, and in C++14 its complete enough to replace all of Glib::Threads.

Here’s what replaces what:

We’ve replaced use of Glib::Threads in our example code and tests, such as the example in our multithreading chapter in the gtkmm book.

This is quite a relief because we never wanted to be in the concurrency API business anyway, and having a standard C++ concurrency API makes it far easier to write cross-platform code. Now if we could just have a standard C++ network IO API and maybe a file structure API, that would be nice.

 

gtkmm 3.18 and glibmm 2.46

A couple of days ago I made the usual bunch of *mm releases for GNOME 3.18, including glibmm 2.46 and gtkmm 3.18, wrapping glib and GTK+ for C++. This adds the usual collection of new API from glib and GTK+, but the big change is the use of C++ 11.

Until C++11 is the default for g++, you’ll probably want to use the AX_CXX_COMPILE_STDCXX_11() autoconf macro. For instance, I used this to use C++11 in PrefixSuffix. Most people won’t need to make any other changes to their code or to their build. You won’t notice any change unless you care about using C++11 features.

Using C++11 in gtkmm and friends has been the most fun I’ve had with gtkmm since I had to delve deep into the GObject lifecycle back during gtkmm 1.2. I even made actual code changes to libsigc++, which I’m usually afraid to touch even though I’m the official maintainer.

Learning in general about the deep implications of  C++11’s new features reminded me how much I enjoyed learning about C++ at the beginning. It’s once again an interesting time for C++.

gtkmm now uses C++11

Switching to C++11

All the *mm projects now require C++11. Current versions of g++ require you to use the –std=c++11 option for this, but the next version will probably use C++11 by default. We might have done this sooner if it  had been clearer that g++ (and libstdc++) really really supported C++11 fully.

I had expected that switching to C++11 would require an ABI break, but that has not happened, so already-built applications will not be affected. But our API now requires C++11 so this is a minor API change that you will notice when rebuilding your application.

Some distros, such as Fedora, are breaking the libstdc++ ABI slightly and requiring a rebuild of all applications, but that would have happened even without the *mm projects moving to C++11. It looks like Ubuntu might be doing this too, so I am still considering taking advantage of a forced (not gtkmm’s fault) widespread ABI break to make some ABI-breaking changes in gtkmm.

C++11 with autotools

You can use C++11 in your autotools-based project by calling AX_CXX_COMPILE_STDCXX_11() in your configure.ac after copying that m4 macro into your source tree. For instance, I used AX_CXX_COMPILE_STDCXX_11() in glom. The *mm projects use the MM_AX_CXX_COMPILE_STDCXX_11() macro that we added to mm-common, to avoid copying the .m4 file into every project. You may use that in your application instead. For instance, we used MM_AX_CXX_COMPILE_STDCXX_11() in the gtkmm-documentation module.

C++11 features

So far, the use of C++11 in gtkmm doesn’t provide much benefit to application developers and you can already use C++11 in applications that use older versions of gtkmm. But it makes life nicer for the gtkmm developers themselves. I’m enjoying learning about the new C++11 features (particularly move constructors) and enjoying our discussions about how best to use them.

I’m reading and re-reading Scott Meyer’s Effective Modern C++ book.  C++11’s rvalue references alone require great care and understanding.

For now, we’ve just made these changes to the **mm projects:

  • Using auto to simplify the code.
    For instance,
    auto builder = Gtk::Builder::create();
  • Using range-based for-loops.
    For instance,
    for(const auto& row : model->children()) { … }
  • Using nullptr instead of 0 or (void*)0.
    For instance,
    Gtk::Widget* widget = nullptr;
  • Using the override keyword when we override a virtual method.
    For instance,
    bool on_draw(const Cairo::RefPtr<Cairo::Context>& cr) override;
  • Using noexcept instead of throw().
    For instance,
    virtual ~Exception() noexcept;
  • Using “= delete” instead of private unimplemented copy constructors and operator=().
  • Using C++11 lambdas, instead of sigc::slots, for small callback methods.
    See below.

libsigc++ with C+11

libsigc++ has also moved to C++11 and we are gradually trying to replace as much as possible of its internals with C++11. Although C++11 has std::function, there’s still no C++11 equivalent for libsigc++ signals and object tracking

You can use C++11 lambda functions with libsigc++. For instance, with glibmm/gtkmm signals:

button.signal_clicked().connect(
  [] () {
    std::cout << "clicked" << std::endl;
  }
);

And now you don’t need the awkard SIGC_FUNCTORS_DEDUCE_RESULT_TYPE_WITH_DECLTYPE macro if the signal/slot returns a value. For instance:

m_tree_model_filter->set_visible_func(
  [this] (const Gtk::TreeModel::const_iterator& iter) -> bool
  {
    auto row = *iter;
    return row[m_columns.m_col_show];
  }
);

With C++14 that should be even nicer:

m_tree_model_filter->set_visible_func(
  [this] (auto iter) -> decltype(auto)
  {
    auto row = *iter;
    return row[m_columns.m_col_show];
  }
);

These -> return type declarations are necessary in these examples just because of the unusual intermediate type returned by row[].