I have just released libsigc++ 2.99.1, the first release of the libsigc++-3.0 API, which installs in parallel with the existing libsigc++-2.0 API. This is libsigc++ using much more modern C++, specifically C++14. The API itself is almost completely unchanged, but the implementation is now clearer and easier to contribute to. I’m rather proud of my work, but I’m quite sure that there’s still room for improvement.
Unfortunately, glibmm and gtkmm can’t use libsigc++-3.0 until they have their own parallel-installable versions. That’s not likely to happen until the mythical GTK+ 4 happens. Even though libsigc++ is mostly all templates in headers, its symbols do appear in the linker symbols for gtkmm method signatures, so changes to libsigc++ can break gtkmm ABI. I do have a sigc3 branch of glibmm in git just to show that it works.
With around 150 commits, I gradually refactored libsigc++ to use variadic templates with C++14 instead of generating code from nasty m4 files. Over the years, we have built up quite a large set of regression tests, run during “make check” and “make distcheck”, including various corner cases. Without these tests, the refactoring would have been much harder. With the tests, I could make small commits, knowing that each commit had not broken anything. When something did seem wrong, I could add a test and go back through the git history to find the problem, sometimes splitting commits into even smaller changes. I did a lot of that, rebasing several times, sometimes stopping and starting again after help from Jonathan Wakeley and Marcin Kolny. Those tests give me much more confidence in the end result than I could have if I had chosen to just reimplement the entire API from scratch.
The API is almost all .h files and according to wc, there are 24,145 lines of code in those files in libsigc++ 2.7.1 (after make), and 6,507 in libsigc++ 2.99.1. So there is now only 27% as much code.
This is possible because:
- C++ variadic templates allow us to have one class or function where we previously had to generate multiple versions for 1 to 6 function parameters, sometimes with additional versions for const and non-const parameters or const and non-const (and volatile and non-volatile) member function pointers.
- decltype(auto) lets us avoid lots of templated type traits just to correctly specify the correct type for methods.
- The standard C++ type traits, such as std::conditional<>, std::result_of<>, std::is_base_of<>, std::remove_volatile<> and std::is_const<> let us write very generic code, sometimes replacing our own type traits. I added some more to libsigc++ to get compile-time type traits for member method pointers.
- template aliases (like typedefs for templates) avoided the need for multiple functor classes deriving from a common base, even though I ended up not needing most of these aliases either.
- I replaced our sigc::ref() and sigc::reference_wrapper() with std::ref() and std::reference_wrapper<>. Presumably these share a common history.
- I removed some configure checks and ifdef-ed workarounds for older MSVC++ and Sun Forte compilers. Hopefully they aren’t necessary now, but we will see.
For some adaptors I used the tuple utilities that I’ve been working on recently, for instance in sigc::bind(). These are copied into the libsigc++ source code, and I’d particularly welcome improvements to them in the form of patches or github pull requests.
I’m still not completely happy with all the overloads we have for sigc::mem_fun(), to take member functions that are non-const, const, non-volatile and/or volatile, but I have some things still to try. We might also remove several by not allowing both mem_fun(pointer, func) and mem_fun(reference, func).
Please do suggest ways to simplify the code yet further.